Delegation is defined as assigning authority to different people on the basis of their skills and professionalism (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). When an entity is assigned to an employee, it means he has to perform on behalf of the person by whom authority is assigned (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). Effective delegation is one of the most basic sets of skills that makes or breaks a manager. Few people construe delegation as a simple practice, however, they end going wrong and thereby negatively impacting the productivity within an organization (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). Therefore, the process of delegation is important for every organization because a single cannot do everything and also it is hard to bear all the workload by one person (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). Organizations have different departments such as project management, technical staff, CEO, PR, and HR. Leadership is a very complex duty since a leader has to understand the problems and basic needs of employees. He has to also train them and run the team equally that is no differences on the basis of culture, race or ethnicity (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). Delegation of tasks is important as it reduces financial burden, increases employee productivity and satisfaction, and develops cooperation and trust between the manager and the employees (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). From the perspective of an employee, a delegation of tasks acts as functional empowerment and motivation for delivering quality work in terms of performance (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). On the scope of the customer, delegation helps an organization to always deliver quality products and services and without delay, thereby satisfying the customers (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). The study is based on work delegation, and its primary focus will be to establish the impact of the delegation of authority on workers' performance at a great Irbid municipality (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). The study is of great importance as it would enable employers to draft changes to their learning policies to fit the needs of the job market (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). The argument in this paper is that work delegation affects how the delivery of services will be laid out to the citizens of the Irbid municipality (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). Following the discussions that will be provided, it is a pointer that employees may find themselves at conflict when they experience such a breach of conflict of interest (Thakur, Kothiya & Bera, 2020). Employee satisfaction is essential because it determines how the workers will render essential services to the citizens (Gawel, 1996). If they are satisfied with the environment of an organization, then they will give their 200 percent (Gawel, 1996). Therefore, delegating roles for employees to work in teams helps a lot in enhancing job efficiency and productivity within an organization (Gawel, 1996). There is a need to analyze Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to illustrate how workers receive the idea of a delegation of duties and it affects the way they will provide services to the citizens of Irbid municipality (Gawel, 1996).
Fig 1: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs comprises five levels of needs and suggests that people will only act to fulfill their higher needs when their lower wants are met (Gawel, 1996). Basic psychological needs include, clothing, food, education and health whereas in a higher level of psychological needs, attaining self-esteem and self-actualization are included. Herzberg's two factor narrows down Maslow's hygiene factors into two main scopes; hygiene factors (Gawel, 1996). The hygiene factors include company policy, salary, working conditions, job security, and interpersonal relations that determine whether the delegation of work will function effectively (Uysal et al., 2017). On the other hand, the motivational factors are high-level sources of motivation that concentrate on the aspects of work, such as accountability, and appreciation of positive results. Innovation is another key ingredient to success for an organization because innovation brings changes and develop interests in employees (Uysal et al., 2017). Also, it attracts the customers as well and makes higher the rank of an organization in the market (Uysal, Aydemir & Genc, 2017).
In a rapidly changing business context, firms must devote their effort to improve their capabilities, and it is only through delegation of roles that workers can feel more empowered and motivated to deliver their best at an organization (Swai, 2015). Empowerment will lead to the creation of trust between the management and workers, and inspiring their participation (Swai, 2015). Employee empowerment through delegation of roles is a modern concept, which is believed to be able to improve the human aspect in the modern organization in order to restore self-confidence, team spirit, spur innovation, and critical thinking in the minds of the workers (Swai, 2015). Employee empowerment also develops an environment where employees will feel that their input is desired and cultivated (Swai, 2015).
The current issues that are facing by employees and organizations are low quality work by employees and poor wages by organizations (AL-Matouaa, 2003). Employees who are not very well aware of some projects are not guided properly by leaders or managers. They just allot them work and expect that they will give their 100 percent to projects. How someone can perform well if he does not know anything about the assigned task? If this scenario is observed from an employee's perspective, then one can understand that from which difficulties an employee has to pass (Swai, 2015). It does not mean that he does not try! In fact, he tries to give 100 percent according to his understanding level or getting help through different sources (Swai, 2015). But if the professional point of view is considered, the expectations of a manager or owner are far more than an employee's thinking. As they are experienced and want high-quality work. But it is important that they should provide complete requirements and help employees to get fruitful outcomes (Bao, & Nizam, 2015).
Another important element is the random downsizing of workers. These are the second big issues of companies. Before down-sizing, a company does not compensate or notify the employees. As a result, they have to quit a job on an urgent basis and have no other option. This can affect the image of a company in the market. The owners did not think that the employees whom they are firing were those persons in whom they look some good skills before hiring. Lack of training, biasness, favoritism, inequality, and injustice are the common and current issues of every next organization.
Specific Problem(s) Underpinning the Issue
The executive leaders of the Great Irbid Municipality (GIM) have heeded to the laments by the general public on the delay in the delivery of crucial services. In order to solve this phenomenon, they have resulted in delegating some of the crucial and urgently needed technical services to lower managerial levels of workers at GIM. It will help to avail the required services, such as medical services to the citizens thereby achieving a higher level of satisfaction and loyalty to the citizens. The government of Jordan intends to eliminate Micromanaging that could prove disastrous in terms of further productivity slumps, self-doubt, and low morale which are not good for an organization. It affects their dignity and self-esteem. When delegating tasks there is need to assign roles to workers based on their skills and expertise in an area to ensure he or she delivers the best.
Proposed Solution - Novelty
In connection with my research study based, there is a need for the government to offer a material and moral incentive to workers so that they may accept and adapt to the roles they are delegated to perform. For example, the employees should be given a salary increase and better allowances this will act as an encouragement for him or her to deliver quality services and in the long term remain productive. There is a need for the government to conduct training courses to the present leaders within the municipality and other regions so that they may know how to integrate delegation within the public institutions.
Another aspect is the communication between managers and employees should first and foremost be clear if these issues are to be reduced (Benrazavi & Silong, 2013). One of the easiest ways to get away with every question is clear communication. Instead, make it possible for the person to work to do so (Benrazavi & Silong, 2013). Second, have adequate resources and expectations so that the employee can function correctly and achieve successful results. Share responsibility for the incentives and jurisdiction (Benrazavi & Silong, 2013).
The current study focuses on identifying the effect of the delegation of authority on employees' performance and productivity at the great Irbid municipality. The study has been developed on measuring the scope of the impact of a delegation of efficiency, effectiveness and empowerment. Finally to address how the conflict of issues in a delegation of tasks arises and its impact on productivity and performance of workers.
Conceptual Framework on Training and Development, and Motivation and Employee Performance (Bao, & Nizam, 2015).
0Training and Development
Delegation of Authority
Rewards and Recognition
Significance of the Study
The study is important as it shows how delegation authority from higher managerial levels to subordinate levels impacted the employees at great Irbid municipality (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). One of the important aspects that the research study discusses is the need to promote employee empowerment in the quest of enhancing the level of service, performance and speed delivery of essential services to the citizens (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). Delegation of authority also fosters positive returns achieving efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity within an organization (Al-Jammal et al., 2015).
- What is the impact of delegation authority practiced and applied by high management on employees of great Irbid municipality?
- How the elements of efficiency, effectiveness, and empowerment help to improve service delivery at the great Irbid municipality?
The research approach used in his study was descriptive, and it was applied dependent on the empirical method through the process of data collection (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). Primary sources obtained were related to the workers working at GIM in the northern region of the Hasmite Kingdom of Jordan (HKJ) (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). The secondary sources were obtained from relevant references, particularly from the google scholar database (Al-Jammal et al., 2015). The questionnaire was applied for data collection connected to the main questions and objectives of the study. The first part of the data collection included; demographic features such as gender, experience and qualification, and the second section includes measuring the effectiveness of the delegation of authority on workers' performance. SPSS was used to analyze the data through the T-test and Cronbach Alpha equation (Al-Jammal et al., 2015).
The research design also ha...
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