Response to Responder # 1Victor Reider
I agree that all parties should be represented, as one reason for the failure to implement he peace agreements is the fact that major parties are not involved (Fausett and Volgy, 2010, p.74). The war in the Darfur region of south Sudan where two groups were pitted against each other because they thought that one of them was being favored by the current regime while the other was being discriminated against. Specifically, the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), Justice, and Equality Movement (JEM) fought against the Sudanese government claiming that the non-Arab population was being harassed (Fausett and Volgy, 2010, p.73). Despite the signing of the Abuja Agreement of 2005 and the Darfur Peace Agreement in 2011, there was no peace as both deals were broken. The solution can only be obtained through conciliations.
Response to Responder #2 Shaun Gilbert
I agree with Gilbert that Military forces are not necessarily key proponents in conflict as their aim is to try to outdo the enemy and take control of the issue of conflict. For instance, in the war in Darfur, the Sudanese government had its own military force while the opposition alliance had its own military (Fausett and Volgy, 2010, p.89). This was one of the factors that escalated the conflict as each camp of military was involved in human rights abuses trying to fight the soldiers of the other side. Additionally, because the military have guns, they tend to abuse the rights of the civilians through cases of rape, brutality and banditry. Territorial dispute is not necessarily the cause of conflict as the war in Darfur was based on race and discrimination of the non-Arabs by the larger Arab population ion Sudan (Jesse and Williams, 2012, p.20).
Response to Writer #1 Teddy Gebremedhin
A agree with you that there has not been proper cooperation between the international, national and local actors in the cessation of the conflict. However, I also want to add that the international community should act swiftly to ensure that Omar al Bashir is arrested and tried for crimes against humanity in the international criminal court (ICC). This would be a deterrent measure for other leaders who might have the thought of pitting ethnic communities against the other. Additionally, as Fausett and Volgy (2010, p.97) states, the arrest of Bashir would be a good step towards quelling this violence in the western Sudanese area of Darfur. However, that notwithstanding, the key issues that are the cause of the conflict should be addressed so that a lasting solution is found (Fausett and Volgy, 2010).
Response to Writer #2 Emily Rozhon
The principle of non-intervention that has been applied by the UN has not worked at all. A new peace strategy is required that would ensure that a final agreement is signed and that the agreement will not be broken (Yahia, Awadiya Ahmed, 2015, p.152). However, I do not entirely agree with you that the conflict results in communication problems. However, I agree that the cultural differences between the Arabs and the Africans could be the cause of the conflict. As such, the two groups should be brought together, their points of conflict determined, and a solution arrived at so that the deaths could stop and those displaced can go back to their country. Indeed just as Fausett and Thomas (2010, p73) puts it, Darfur was already in bad state before the war and cannot, therefore, be any better with the escalation of the violence.
Fausett, E. and Volgy, T.J., 2010. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and interstate conflict: Parsing out IGO effects for alternative dimensions of conflict in postcommunist space. International Studies Quarterly, 54(1), pp.79-101.
Yahia, Awadiya Ahmed., 2015. "The challenges, struggle and resistance of women in conflict zones: a case study from Darfur, western Sudan.": 152-178
Jesse, Neal G., and Kristen P. Williams., 2005. Identity and Institutions: Conflict Reduction in Divided Societies. Chapters 1 & 3
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