Describe an auditory, visual, and tactile warning signal that could be used to inform occupants in a moving vehicle to use their seatbelt and explain the ideal situations for each of these signals. (You are welcome to think outside the box - be creative)
In a moving vehicle, it is necessary to remind the occupants that the seat belts need to be used. There are different situations in which the forms of reminders might be ideal. For example, the reminders can be in auditory form, visually, as well as tactile warning. The operational dynamics of seat belt reminders is to detect whether they are being used depending on the position of the occupants of a vehicle so that urgent warning messages are given. An example of an auditory seat belt reminder is the Belt-Minder system that was recently developed by Ford. Such a structure has been installed in many models of vehicles by the company, and its primary objective is to remind the occupants of the automobile to buckle up (Hatton, 2017). By tracking seat belt use, the feature alerts occupants to use the seat belt by using an auditory note. Hence, it manages to enhance the safety of the users of the vehicle since it helps reduce the risks associated with ignoring its use (Marques, da Silva Lopes, Vieira, de Melo Ferreira, & de Moura Vasconcelos, 2018). With a chime/audible alert that considers whether both the driver and the passenger have buckled up. If they have, the system doesn't produce an audible alarm, but failure to use them prompts the alert. In addition to this, if the driver unbuckles and drives for a period more than 1 minute and at speed exceeding 3 MPH, then the audible alert is produced. An example of a scenario where the system would be useful would be in highways where drivers are allowed to drive at very high speeds. Therefore, they will be protected from harm as the audible alert will continuously remind them to buckle up. In addition to the above, the DaimlerChrysler belt reminder system is an example of a visual warning signal (Schoenberg & Steffen, 2016). The system is designed in such a manner that it produces a steady warning light that reminds the driver to buckle up. After 30 seconds of giving the warning signal (light) a multistage progressive chime and flashing light is produced and this is meant to remind the occupants that their well-being is under jeopardy (Andreen, 2017). A scenario where the use of the DaimlerChrysler belt reminder system would be useful would be in vehicles that are used for transforming family members. In most cases, the children can easily forget to use the seat belts, and in case the children are loud, the auditory note might be ignored or unheard. Therefore, a visual warning would be sufficient as children quickly notice the light, and they can even remind their parents in the event they have not seen the flashing light. Lastly, the Toyota belt reminder system is an example of a tactile warning signal that was developed by Toyota. The system is a combination of both auditory and visual cues. For the auditory dynamic, there is a buzzer that is sounded like a warning signal for the occupants to use the seat belts (Pisz, Schulz, & Jiang, 2016). On the other hand, the visual cue that is offered by the same system is a flashing light that lasts for 10 seconds, which serves to remind the users that they have to buckle up. A scenario where the system would be adequate would be for busy roads where a lot of noise from road users usually is, and the occupants can fail to hear the auditory notes (Pisz, Schulz, & Jiang, 2016). Therefore, the buzzer would help as it irritates but helpful.
You have been asked to design a series of ergonomic safety posters for a mining company to be posted in dimly lit tunnels. How should these posters differ from the banners that are located in the lunchroom that is well-lit?
The ergonomic posters that are to be developed for a mining company need to write in bold. Writing them in bold would ensure that they can be read from a distance even by passers-by and another human resource within site. In addition to this, the posters should be written in large font. Apart from being written in bold font, they should also be captured in large font, and this makes it easier for the human resources to notice them and read the content that is obtained easily. On a different note, the mining sites are marred with a lot of noise and dust, making it difficult to see over long distances. The powder can also settle on the posters and cover individual letters that are used in communicating the messages being presented. As a result, the best approach would be to use the large font as well as a letter written in bold so that even when they are covered with dust, the message is not distorted. The background of the posters where the notes are written should also be bright. In other terms, brightly covered signs, the content can be seen from a distance. Even when the air is dusty, the human resources in the dimly lit tunnel can readily notice them and read what has been captured. Lastly, the paper that is to be used should be made of a material that can reflect light and one which does not allow dust to settle on it. For dimly lit tunnels, the reflective characteristic of the poster will help in reading, and the other feature preventing dust from settling helps to keep the banner in good condition.
Choose one of the following machines and write a summary describing the ideal set up for controls and visual aids that address both cognitive and physical ergonomics.
A crane is a type of machine that is generally equipped with features such as sheaves, wire ropes, chains, as well as hoist rope. Used for a series of outcomes, the significant role that it plays is in lifting and lowering materials as well as moving them horizontally. In most cases, the machine is preferred for lifting massive materials so that they can be transported. As much as they give mechanical advantage to humans, the ideal set up of controls and visuals should be enhanced for proper use (Henry, Crane, Nash, G., Hobson, Kirke-Smith, & Wilcock, 2017). In doing so, both cognitive and physical ergonomics are enhanced. Thus, the primary objective of ideally setting up controls is to guarantee the safety and efficiency of the machine. The ideal set up for inspections should be on the dashboard. For example, the controls for the hoist and crane should be within reach of the operator of the machine to ensure that they can easily reach them. While a crane might have many tasks that the can complete, it is these two (hoist and crane) that are regularly used, and their objectives are to lift/lower and tie the loads to be lifted/lowered. Therefore, the operator is more likely to use these two hence the need for them to be on the dashboard for ease of access (Henry, Crane, Nash, G., Hobson, Kirke-Smith, & Wilcock, 2017). They should also be larger as compared to the other controls to signify their significance. Other controls such as steering wheel and speed limits should be evenly distributed within the operator's cab. In doing so, physical ergonomics is enhanced as there is ease of movement, and their possibility of fatigue is reduced. That is the case, as all body parts are used in the operations.
Study pages 469-485. Which of the factors listed in table 6.7-page, 471 can be observed in a given workplace you are doing your final project? Identify jobs or tasks in this work that requires regular inspection. Which of the variables listed in table 6.11, page 482 could affect the performance of the inspector? How can they be improved?
From page 483, the factor that could affect the performance of an inspector is the changes that are afforded to the rejection criteria (p.483). To be able to carry out their inspection tasks more effectively, it requires that the rejection criteria should be mastered by the inspector. In doing so, they can be in a position to carry out their tasks more effectively in that they identify the products that do not meet the set criteria and categorize them as rejects. The performance of the inspector is affected due to the regular changes and additions that are directed towards the rejection criteria. Thus, the inspector has to carry out extensive and frequent research to ensure that they are informed and at the same time, they are level with the current criterion. Such analysis can be cumbersome and time-consuming for the professional. From table 6.7, it is task factors are the ones that are observed in the workplace. For example, spatial distribution is a common task in the workplace whereby the resources being used are being regularly moved so that they can be accessed easily when they are required. The materials that are being used that are being supplied through out-sourcing are the ones that should be regularly inspected. Regular inspection is necessary so that it can be ascertained that the resources are in good condition and they are of good quality (p.472). At the same time, the suppliers are more likely to limit and compromise on the quality of their supplies, primarily if they are supplying in huge volumes. Thus, it follows that the best alternative is to carry out regular inspection.
Study pages 421 to 435. Summarize the case study on one page.
In this given case study, the workers are being considered in a series of undertakings to protect them from over-working. For example, clustering of similar products helps to reduce the need for changeovers hence reducing the number of shifts that are required as well as the number of human resources. Other design guidelines have also been employed, and they all aim to reduce the stress of the job shop. The organization is also looking to boost the health status of its employees through the incorporation of health and safety measures (p.427). Considerations are also made in terms of age and overtime to allow effective task-delivery and output maximization. Redesign processes are also being incorporated to develop systems that are highly functional and reliable for sustainable outcomes (p.432). The plant that has been in place for years has managed to serve its purposes over the years, although it is exposed to the risk of being outdated hence the AWS. Thus, the plant is looking to adopt the new system so that their employees can be protected from health risks, and the output can be of better quality. In doing so, the design guidelines offer a viable option in reducing the stress for workers.
Why is it important to realize that ergonomic devices should not be used to increase work output? In what context should ergonomic accessories be analyzed?
Ergonomic devices should be employed with the primary objective of enhancing the efficiency of human resources within the workplace. While this is the primary goal, the increased output is an added advantage that comes with the use of the devices. As a result, it should be noted that it is the employees who are to be prioritized but not the outcomes of the workplace they hold (Mowatt, Gordon, Santosh, & Jones, 2018). The ergonomic devices, therefore, should be assessed with consideration to injury-related cases that are noted. Thus, use ergonomic tools are those that can reduce injury-related cases. In other terms, the effectiveness of the task delivery could be enhanced if the workstations are safe and free from strain (Mowatt, Gordon, Santosh, & Jones, 2018). Encouraging employee engagement is another means through which ergonomic devices can be assessed. Ergonomic accessories should be focused on allowing the employees to be engaged in the operations of the workplace. Thus, the employees are most likely to offer more commitment to systems that believe work in their favor. The ability to provide comfort to the employees is another assessment criterion for erg...
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