Alexander, M., & Overdrive Inc. (2010). The New Jim Crow. S.I.: The New Press.
Alexander (2010) asserts that most Americans continue to ignore that racism is still rife in America; many years after Jim Crow laws were abolished. The media continues to dismiss issues of racism as issues of the past and that the issues are not relevant in the current era. Media pundits and politicians continue to claim that America has moved past issues of racism into a post-racialism era that is blind to color. Media pundits have claimed that election of President Obama did put the last nail in the coffin of Jim Crow laws and other forms of racial discrimination in the United States. Alexander (2010) opines that the triumphant notion of post-racialism is nothing other than fiction. She goes ahead to state affirm that racial discrimination is still prevalent in the United States and it is manifested in the mass incarceration of racial minorities. Racism in America has metamorphosed into a type of racial caste system where racial minorities continue to be discriminated against.
Bobo, L. D. (2011). Somewhere between Jim Crow & Post-Racialism: Reflections on the Racial Divide in America Today. Daedalus, 140, 2, 11-36.
Bobo (2011) asserts that even though African Americans wrote a declaration of independence, efforts to transform the words into real life experiences have not yet borne fruit. During the middle of the twentieth century, the color line was well defined and firmly entrenched in a way that it shaped lives of institutions and people who lived under them. Segregation during the Jim Crow era was deeply entrenched in social, political and economic arrangements of those times. In 1954, a Supreme Court decision on Brown v. Board of Education played a major role in addressing racial discrimination in the education sector. In 1964, a Civil Rights Act was passed that forbade discrimination in most public places as well as in employment. The year 1965 will remain in history as one of the most important years with regard to the struggle for racial justice in the United States. In 1965, the Civil Rights Movement compelled Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act, a triumph for civil rights.
Presently, America still grapples with the issue of racism. Post-racialism is seen in the manner in which the black population still wallows in unemployment and poverty. Racial, economic inequality is in such a way that it is of disadvantage to the African American community. Anti-black discrimination is still prevalent in the American society. There is discrimination in the racial system with many of the individuals that are incarcerated being of African-American descent. Racism remains to be a powerful influence on Americas culture and politics. Even though there has been an erosion and decline of Jim Crow racist attitudes in the United States, there has emerged a new pattern of racial attitudes that are more covert, subtle and sophisticated.
Coates, T.N. (2014). The case for reparations. The Atlantic. Retrieved on March 20, 2017 from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/
Coates (2014) suggests that there is a need for reparations for many years that African Americans have been victims of racial discrimination. In the 1920s during Jim Crow laws, African Americans were denied a right to vote through trickery; a poll tax was imposed on African Americans making them disinterested to vote. A day prior to elections, there are some African Americans who were lynched to scare them from reporting to the polls. African Americans who decided to venture into farming experienced a lot of difficulties. White run cartels kept African American farmers in perpetual debt peonage. Land owned by African Americans was swindled away from them by use of trickery. During the Jim Crow era, African American students were discriminated against by the education system. African American sharecroppers were maltreated and exploited by white landlords. Between 1930 and 1960, African Americans were discriminated against by the home-market mortgage industry and denied mortgages because of the color of their skin. The author aptly addresses tribulations that African Americans went through during the Jim Crow era as well as social ills that they continued to grapple with during the Civil Rights Movement era. Today, African Americans form a bulk of people in America that continue to wallow in poverty. Most of the jobs with low wages are done by African Americans. Coates (2014) aptly addresses the racial discrimination that African Americans have had to contend with for many years in many spheres of life by use of real life personalities, experiences and stories.
Lahiri, J. (2014). Interpreter of maladies. London: Fourth Estate
Lahiri (2014) reveals that many people in arranged marriages are not happy. Mr. and Mrs. Das are not happy in their marriage, and they do not accord each other respect that married couples deserve. Dass family fabric lacks respect to the extent that Mr. Dass children are indiscipline and do not follow his orders. There is no unity in the family, exemplified by the manner in which Mrs. Das buys a snack and fails to share it with the rest of her family members. Most people in arranged marriages are likely to engage in extramarital affairs as revealed by Mrs. Das whose extramarital affair led to the birth of Bobby, her youngest son. The source does a commendable job in addressing issues of unhappiness and infidelity among couples in arranged marriages.
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. (2010). Birdsong. The New Yorker. Retrieved on March 20. 2017 from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/09/20/birdsong-2Chimamanda (2010) aptly discusses the issue of infidelity in marriage. She also discusses a desire for marriage among most women in their early thirties. The women in their early thirties are also much concerned about their fertility, and some of them seek for fertility treatment from unscrupulous dealers and pastors who claim that their treatments are approved by God. Chimamanda (2010) reveals that there is a crop of women who claim to be holier than thou and are very critical of their female friends who romantically involve themselves with married men, stating that is immoral and against Gods commandments. There is an impression in Nigerian society that light skinned women who appear classy are wives of rich men. According to Chimamanda (2010), many married men engage in many extramarital affairs. However, most of the married men who engage in extramarital affairs try to justify their behavior by stating that at least for them, they do not engage in many extramarital affairs as other men do. Most married men who engage in extramarital affairs afford their mistresses love, sensitivity, and affection that their wives can only imagine of. Most men engage in extramarital affairs as a way of cuddling their ego. On the other side, women who get romantically involved with married men experience moments of anxiety, paranoia, and occasional happiness.
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