Session 1 HRM Duties and Responsibilities
Human Resource Management (HRM) has evolved over the years to become one of the most important management functions in contemporary organizations. The HRM plays a very strategic role in contemporary firms by supporting talent development, innovations, and new approaches for boosting the productivity and performance of employees within the company (Torrington, 2008). As such, the HR department in a company focuses on developing the know-how on performance management, productivity, employee management, and optimizing personnel costs through instituting smart payment and compensation packages for the workforce (Armstrong, 2003). Consequently, the responsibilities and duties of the HRM in modern companies are very broad and essential to the companys strategic planning.
Initially, the role of the HR was restricted only to administrative duties within an organization. HR employees were mainly concerned with ensuring legal compliance, producing HR statistical reports, and managing employee benefits and compensation. As such, the HR department did not provide any value to the top management in terms of the organizations strategic planning. However, today, the role and function of HRM in organizations is purely strategic and has become an indispensable part of organizational management.
Consequently, the role of the HRM is to plan, develop, and implement programs and policies that are aimed at improving the expeditious utilization of an organizations workforce. Essentially, the HRM is mainly concerned with managing people at work as well as focusing on improving the relations between the firm and its employees as well as amongst employees within the company (Torrington, 2008). Therefore, HRM has three core objectives namely; ensuring workforce development, improving efficiency of an organizations human resource and creating desirable working conditions for all individuals in the company.
There are four main functional areas that the HRM focuses on. These are staffing, planning, employee development, and employee maintenance. These four broad aspects of HRM are all related and share a common objective of ensuring the company has an adequate number of employees who are competent enough to deliver on their mandate to help the company meet its short term and long term objectives (Armstrong, 2003). The specific duties and roles of the HRM can be broken down as human resource planning, job analysis, staffing, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career planning, compensation, benefits, labor relations, personnel research, and record maintenance.
The human resource planning function entails figuring out the number and type of workers or employees that an organization needs to help in accomplishing the specified tasks. This requires proper research, gathering relevant data and analyzing information that can help in forecasting the supply and demand of human resources as well as determining whether the company will have adequate resources to support the desired number of employees (Torrington, 2008).
Job analysis, on the other hand, is a HRM role that aims at describing the nature of a job or task in the company, specifying its requirements in terms of skills and the experience of the individuals who can perform the task better (Sims, 2007). A job analysis often results in a job description, which indicates the duties and functions of the task and the qualities of the employees performing the work.
The other important role and function of the HRM in a company is staffing. This focuses on the selection and recruitment procedures in an organization. Essentially, this focuses on attracting, recruiting, and retaining the most qualified people to help drive the organizations agenda.
Orientation, on the other hand, forms the first step of inducting new employees to the company. This HRM function aims at helping new employees to settle and adjust themselves to the new environment and the job requirements. This helps new employees to acclimatize and learn more about the company, the people, the culture and the products and services.
The other important role of HRM is training and development. This involves empowering the employees to boost their performance and increase their productivity through improving their skills and increasing their knowledge (Armstrong, 2003). Also, this role helps the organization to train and empower new and inexperienced employees as well as helping employees to work with new technologies that the organization introduces.
Performance appraisal entails monitoring the performance of employees to ensure that it meets the acceptable levels. The HRM has the duty of devising relevant appraisal systems that can help boost the performance of the employees.
Career planning involves assessing and evaluating the potential of an individual employee for professional growth and career advancement within the company. This culminates in putting up strategies for employee promotion to open up avenues for the employees to advance their careers.
The HRM also has the duty of devising compensation and benefit packages for its workers. There should be a rational method for determining how much each employee should be paid as well as a proper method for determining the benefits to award the employees.
The other duty of HRM is to manage labor relations in the organization through interactions with employees unions and resolving disputes with employees amicably. Finally, the HRM also plays the basic management role of record maintenance. This involves keeping and maintain human resource related records such as application forms, health and medical records, employment history, employee data, absenteeism records among others.
Session 2 Employee Rights in GA
Employees are very important stakeholders in any organization since they have a significant direct input in the production process. In as much as the organizations and employers reserve the rights to hire and fire employees, the employees also have various rights recognized by statutes and which ought to be respected (Raymond, 2004). These rights of employees are meant to create a conducive environment in the workplace, where employers and employees respect each other and both work in collaboration to improve the company and drive it towards achieving its goals. The issues of employee rights have been subject of various legislations in the history of employment. Employee rights revolve around the issues of discrimination, compensation, health and safety, working conditions, and employment contracts among others. Statutory provisions conferring rights employees are therefore widespread and touch on different issues.
In the US, statutes dealing with employee rights include title VII of Civil Rights Act (1964), Title I of Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), and Family and Medical Leave Act (1993). These were the first laws regulating labor relations between employees and their employers while also recognizing that employees have rights. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was also created, as well as various other anti-discrimination laws to do away with all forms of discrimination in employment opportunities. There were also many other landmark cases that helped to shape the current framework of labor regulations. There have also been various changes to the discrimination law in order to ensure inclusiveness of minority groups based on religion, gender, disability and race (Raymond, 2004).
These federal statutes apply to employees across all the states in the country. In addition to these statutes, the state of Georgia, GA, has also enacted various laws to help protect the rights of employees in the workplace. As such, the laws on employee rights within the state cover broad issues including state minimum wage, fair pay and equal pay, the hiring process, and workplace health and safety standards. Some of the laws protecting the rights of employees in the state are as follows Fair Credit Reporting Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Age Discrimination Act of 1963, Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (Raymond, 2004). It is important for companies in Georgia to observe all the statutes as this will be an important step in avoiding conflicts in the workplace and minimized industrial actions thereby ensuring the company is focused towards achieving its goals.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was formed to help spearhead rights of the disabled. The commission was charged with the responsibility of interpreting the legislation on disability, with regard to employment of the disabled people. The Americans with Disabilities Act ensures various civil rights of the disabled people are recognized by their current and prospective employers. The Act ensures that individuals with disabilities have a right to an equal opportunity to make job applications in any field they are qualified. They have an equal opportunity to promotions just like their colleagues without disabilities. The disabled individuals also have a right to be treated with dignity. This ensures they are not harassed in any way in their places of work. They also have an equal opportunity to access all privileges and benefits offered to employees they work with.
Employers are also required by the Act to provide reasonable accommodation to persons with disability in their workforce. Reasonable accommodation refers to the changes or adjustments made to the work environment or the job to make it easier for job applicants or employees with disabilities to take part in the job application process or to perform the essential functions of the job. This includes restructuring the job, provision or modification of equipment, provision of readers and interpreters and making the working place accessible for persons with disabilities.
The ADA makes it illegal for employers to discriminate in any way against persons with disabilities in the workplace. In order to be fully covered by the Act, the disabled people who feel discriminated must be qualified for the job in question and must be able to perform the essential tasks of the job. Employment practices covered in the Act include promotions, recruitments, layoffs, pay, and benefits among others.
In case of any discrimination, the aggrieved person should seek legal advice and contact the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as soon as possible and file a charge of discrimination within 180 days (Sims, 2007). The Individual discriminated against will receive a remedy that will put him in a position that he or she would have been had it not been for the discriminatory act. ADA Title I specifically deal with discrimination in employment. This title requires all employers with over 15 employees to provide equal employment opportunities to qualified individuals with disabilities. This prohibits discrimination against individuals based on their disabilities when it comes to recruitment, promotions, pay, and training among other work related issues. It requires equal treatment of individuals with disabilities with those without disabilities (Dale, 2004). Title 1 also restricts employers from asking questions regarding an individuals disability during a job interview. Employers are also required to provide reasonable accommodation to employers with mental or physical disabilities.
Session 3 Job Analysis & Job Description
Job analysis entails identifying and determining the details of the vacant position in terms of the specific duties that ought to be performed and the main requirements of the individuals best suited to fill the position. This pr...
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