Students have multiple questions bothering them when it comes to essay writing. However, quotations and citations bother them all much more frequently than features of another essay kind. You know what is meant here, don’t you?
Quotes and citations are among the trickiest attributes of any academic paper. To make them all be right, you need to:
- double-check the professor’s requirements;
- know what a citation and a quotation is;
- apply the formatting style correctly;
- edit and proofread all your citations and quotations thoroughly.
The point is, to use quotes and citations effectively, a student should know how to make them suit the essay’s content naturally and to provide the necessary backup or proof for their thesis statement. Suppose you want to get an even deeper understanding of the reasons for every student to use enough of those two pieces of the academic world in their paper. In that case, you should keep in mind the fact that any point looks much more valid when it is supported with relevant examples, reasonably backed up facts, and carefully chosen quotes.
Essay Quotations and Citations: Know the Difference
Now, when you have refreshed your understanding of the importance of citations and quotations, it is time to proceed with the next point. A lot of students make the same mistake when they perceive these two academic writing definitions as synonyms. Quotations and citations are not the same. They are not similar or likely. They are totally different when speaking of the process of planning and writing your essays.
Simply put, a citation in an essay references a particular source without directly quoting it. For instance, inserting a paragraph that is a part of any relevant source in your essay and then restating its point with your own words is a citation. Simple pasting of the original source’s piece into your paper is not an option in this case.
On the other hand, there is quoting. Quoting supposes a student (a researcher or any other person writing an academic paper) to paste a paragraph or phrase directly, with no changes made. That is the focus difference between citations and quotations.
As it was mentioned at the very beginning of this article, the format of both quotes and citations is among the points to pay attention to. The fact that it is mentioned here last does not make it less important. Formats depend on formatting styles that must be applied to your paper. That is why it is critical to study all instructions carefully and attentively. Otherwise, even an essay with perfectly chosen and ideally used proofs, quotes, and citations will never get the top grade it would rightfully deserve.
Types of Quotations With Examples
Let us start with quotations. The fact that we pay attention to them first does not mean they are more critical or more widely used. Again, both citation and quotation rules are crucial to know well if you plan to get a perfect grade for your essay. So, here are quotation types by format with some examples.
Note: citations and quotes used here are randomly crafted phrases not designed to serve as references. The same works for an author indicated below. Be advised and check your sources hardly until you are confident all of them are relevant.
Here, short quotes are those consisting of four printed prose lines or less. In the case of verses, three lines apply. In case a piece of reference text you want to insert meets that length frame, all you have got to do is add the double quotation mark according to the rules, then give the last name of the source author, and provide the number of the page where that quotation can be found. A piece longer than four prose lines goes as a separate content with no quotes marking it. The author’s last name and the number of the page go next.
Tip: to insert quotes more naturally, make sure you used some intro words before giving them. For shorter pieces, a few words will do. For long ones, it is recommended to separate a quote from introductory phrases with a colon.
- For instance: Some experts predict Bitcoin to become a “next-gen world currency” (Doe, 215).
This one is similar to the MLA style just described above. However, you need to know about some differences. APA requirements want students to give the publication year after the author’s last name and put the “p.” mark before the number of the required page. Long quotations work pretty similarly to those of MLA here, but a student should use their own thoughts and words to reflect briefly on the evidence they used.
- For instance: Some experts predict Bitcoin to become a “next-gen world currency” (Doe, 2020, p. 215).
Essay Citations With Samples
Now we are done with the essay quotes format explanation, and it is a perfect moment to proceed with citations. Keep your eyes sharp, and do not let the attention decrease. The academic world does not forgive formatting mistakes in anything, including sources and citations.
The MLA format wants you to give only the name of the author followed by the page number in parentheses. This is probably the simplest citation, but most students fail to check it exactly because of its simplicity.
- For instance: In his work, Doe says that Bitcoin is going to become a next-gen world currency (215).
Be cautious with that page number! It may cost you a perfect grade.
Again, they need you to provide the author’s last name, publication year, and page with the “p.” mark. Add parenthesis in the same sentence where the citation is included.
- For instance: Doe (2020, p. 215) predicts Bitcoin to become a next-gen world currency.
And here goes the special one. Chicago style requirements are simpler on the one hand and trickier on the other hand. It relies on end- and footnotes instead of instant source references inserted. The only thing you need to give is the citation number put right after the phrase itself. However, the footnote here wants you to include full info on the bibliography. The sample below will explain it all visually. Check things out.
- For instance: In his work, Doe says that Bitcoin is going to become a next-gen world currency.1
1Author’s first and last name, source name (pay attention – it is in Italic), (Publication place, Publisher, Year), number of the page.